The University of Arizona

Children's Respiratory Study (CRS)

Summary: 

The Children’s Respiratory Study (CRS) was started in 1980 with the goal of exploring the early life origins of asthma. Between 1980 and 1984, 1246 healthy infants were enrolled in the study at birth making the CRS a population based, non-selected, prospective birth cohort study.

The CRS has been continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health through the present. Starting at birth, samples and questionnaires have been collected from the enrolled children at regular intervals. There have been 5 “In Depth” Evaluations completed at ages 6, 11, 16, 22, and 26 years. In Depth 6 is currently in progress and the participants are on average 32 years old. At each In Depth Evaluation, the participants performed pulmonary function testing (PFT), bronchial hyper-responsiveness testing (methacholine or cold air challenge), allergy skin prick tests to local aeroallergens. In some of the evaluations, peak flow variability testing, exhaled nitric oxide measurement and sputum induction were also included in the protocols. In addition, blood samples were collected for complete blood cell counts, DNA extraction, and total immunoglobulin E measurement. Blood samples were also collected at birth (umbilical cord) and at 9 months of age. Additional respiratory health questionnaires were completed at ages 2, 3, 8, 13, 18, 24, and 29 years.

One of the strengths of the CRS study is the detailed information collected about lower respiratory illnesses (LRI) during the first 3 years of life (bronchiolitis, pneumonia, croup and others). In case of symptoms compatible with LRI, children were seen by a pediatrician and symptoms as well as viral or bacterial etiology of each LRI were determined. Parents and siblings also completed respiratory questionnaires, pulmonary function testing, allergy skin prick testing and a blood sample collection.

Of the 1246 CRS participants, 821 have adult respiratory data between ages 22 and 29 years. Our main measure of asthma is derived from the questionnaires and is defined as a physician diagnosis of asthma with episodes or attacks of asthma and/or wheeze during the previous year. We define frequent asthma as four or more episodes during the previous year and infrequent asthma as 1-3 episodes during the previous year. As adults, 12% (n=97) of the CRS participants have frequent asthma and 18% have infrequent asthma (n=148). In addition, 6% (n=47) report frequent wheeze without a diagnosis of asthma and 24% (n=195) report infrequent wheeze without a diagnosis of asthma. Overall, 41% (n=334) of CRS participants do not report asthma and wheeze symptoms as adults.

Phenotype data for each CRS contact, numbers correspond to participants with data
CRS Statistics


Wayne J. Morgan, MD

Research Specialties: 
Allergy
Asthma
Genetics
Immunology

PubMed Citations: 
Kibler R, Hicks MJ, Wright AL, Taussig LM. A comparative analysis of cord blood and adult lymphocytes: interleukin-2 and interferon production, natural killer cell activity, and lymphocyte populations. Diagnostic immunology. 1986;4(4):201-8. Epub 1986/01/01. PubMed PMID: 2428555

Tepper RS, Morgan WJ, Cota K, Wright A, Taussig LM. Physiologic growth and development of the lung during the first year of life. The American review of respiratory disease. 1986;134(3):513-9. Epub 1986/09/01. doi: 10.1164/arrd.1986.134.3.513. PubMed PMID: 3752707

Geller DE, Morgan WJ, Cota KA, Wright AL, Taussig LM. Airway responsiveness to cold, dry air in normal infants. Pediatric pulmonology. 1988;4(2):90-7. Epub 1988/01/01. PubMed PMID: 3380581

Martinez FD, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Taussig LM. Diminished lung function as a predisposing factor for wheezing respiratory illness in infants. The New England journal of medicine. 1988;319(17):1112-7. Epub 1988/10/27. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198810273191702. PubMed PMID: 3173442

Wright AL, Holberg C, Taussig LM. Infant-feeding practices among middle-class Anglos and Hispanics. Pediatrics. 1988;82(3 Pt 2):496-503. Epub 1988/09/01. PubMed PMID: 3405686

Taussig LM, Wright AL, Morgan WJ, Harrison HR, Ray CG. The Tucson Children's Respiratory Study. I. Design and implementation of a prospective study of acute and chronic respiratory illness in children. American journal of epidemiology. 1989;129(6):1219-31. Epub 1989/06/01. PubMed PMID: 2729258

Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Morgan WJ, Taussig LM. Breast feeding and lower respiratory tract illness in the first year of life. Group Health Medical Associates. BMJ. 1989;299(6705):946-9. Epub 1989/10/14. PubMed PMID: 2508946

Wright AL, Taussig LM, Ray CG, Harrison HR, Holberg CJ. The Tucson Children's Respiratory Study. II. Lower respiratory tract illness in the first year of life. American journal of epidemiology. 1989;129(6):1232-46. Epub 1989/06/01. PubMed PMID: 2729259

Halonen M, Stern D, Lyle S, Wright A, Taussig L, Martinez FD. Relationship of total serum IgE levels in cord and 9-month sera of infants. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 1991;21(2):235-41. Epub 1991/03/01. PubMed PMID: 2043992

Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Ray CG, Taussig LM, Lebowitz MD. Risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus-associated lower respiratory illnesses in the first year of life. American journal of epidemiology. 1991;133(11):1135-51. Epub 1991/06/01. PubMed PMID: 2035517

Martinez FD, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Holberg C, Taussig LM. Initial airway function is a risk factor for recurrent wheezing respiratory illnesses during the first three years of life. Group Health Medical Associates. The American review of respiratory disease. 1991;143(2):312-6. Epub 1991/02/01. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm/143.2.312. PubMed PMID: 1990945

Wright AL, Holberg C, Martinez FD, Taussig LM. Relationship of parental smoking to wheezing and nonwheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in infancy. Group Health Medical Associates. The Journal of pediatrics. 1991;118(2):207-14. Epub 1991/02/01. PubMed PMID: 1993946

Halonen M, Stern D, Taussig LM, Wright A, Ray CG, Martinez FD. The predictive relationship between serum IgE levels at birth and subsequent incidences of lower respiratory illnesses and eczema in infants. The American review of respiratory disease. 1992;146(4):866-70. Epub 1992/10/01. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm/146.4.866. PubMed PMID: 1416412

Martinez FD, Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Taussig LM. Maternal age as a risk factor for wheezing lower respiratory illnesses in the first year of life. American journal of epidemiology. 1992;136(10):1258-68. Epub 1992/11/15. PubMed PMID: 1476148

Stern DA, Hicks MJ, Martinez FD, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Pinnas J, et al. Lymphocyte subpopulation number and function in infancy. Developmental immunology. 1992;2(3):175-9. Epub 1992/01/01. PubMed PMID: 1627949

Camilli AE, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Taussig LM. Parental childhood respiratory illness and respiratory illness in their infants. Group Health Medical Associates. Pediatric pulmonology. 1993;16(5):275-80. Epub 1993/11/01. PubMed PMID: 8255631

Duncan B, Ey J, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Taussig LM. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months protects against otitis media. Pediatrics. 1993;91(5):867-72. Epub 1993/05/01. PubMed PMID: 8474804

Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Morgan WJ, Taussig LM. Child day care, smoking by caregivers, and lower respiratory tract illness in the first 3 years of life. Group Health Medical Associates. Pediatrics. 1993;91(5):885-92. Epub 1993/05/01. PubMed PMID: 8474807

Ray CG, Holberg CJ, Minnich LL, Shehab ZM, Wright AL, Taussig LM. Acute lower respiratory illnesses during the first three years of life: potential roles for various etiologic agents. The Group Health Medical Associates. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 1993;12(1):10-4. Epub 1993/01/01. PubMed PMID: 8380234

Ray CG, Minnich LL, Holberg CJ, Shehab ZM, Wright AL, Barton LL, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus-associated lower respiratory illnesses: possible influence of other agents. The Group Health Medical Associates. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 1993;12(1):15-9. Epub 1993/01/01. PubMed PMID: 8417418

Martinez FD, Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Taussig LM. Evidence for Mendelian inheritance of serum IgE levels in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white families. American journal of human genetics. 1994;55(3):555-65. Epub 1994/09/01. PubMed PMID: 8079994

Martinez FD, Wright AL, Taussig LM. The effect of paternal smoking on the birthweight of newborns whose mothers did not smoke. Group Health Medical Associates. American journal of public health. 1994;84(9):1489-91. Epub 1994/09/01. PubMed PMID: 8092378

Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Halonen M, Morgan W, Taussig LM. Epidemiology of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis in childhood. Pediatrics. 1994;94(6 Pt 1):895-901. Epub 1994/12/01. PubMed PMID: 7971008

Ey JL, Holberg CJ, Aldous MB, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Taussig LM. Passive smoke exposure and otitis media in the first year of life. Group Health Medical Associates. Pediatrics. 1995;95(5):670-7. Epub 1995/05/01. PubMed PMID: 7724301

Martinez FD, Stern DA, Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Taussig LM, Halonen M. Association of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production by blood mononuclear cells in infancy with parental allergy skin tests and with subsequent development of atopy. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1995;96(5 Pt 1):652-60. Epub 1995/11/01. PubMed PMID: 7499682

Martinez FD, Stern DA, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Halonen M. Association of non-wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in early life with persistently diminished serum IgE levels. Group Health Medical Associates. Thorax. 1995;50(10):1067-72. Epub 1995/10/01. PubMed PMID: 7491555

Martinez FD, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Morgan WJ. Asthma and wheezing in the first six years of life. The Group Health Medical Associates. The New England journal of medicine. 1995;332(3):133-8. Epub 1995/01/19. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199501193320301. PubMed PMID: 7800004

Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Taussig LM, Martinez FD. Relationship of infant feeding to recurrent wheezing at age 6 years. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. 1995;149(7):758-63. Epub 1995/07/01. PubMed PMID: 7795765

Aldous MB, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Taussig LM. Evaporative cooling and other home factors and lower respiratory tract illness during the first year of life. Group Health Medical Associates. American journal of epidemiology. 1996;143(5):423-30. Epub 1996/03/01. PubMed PMID: 8610657

Holberg CJ, Elston RC, Halonen M, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Morgan WJ, et al. Segregation analysis of physician-diagnosed asthma in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white families. A recessive component? American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1996;154(1):144-50. Epub 1996/07/01. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.154.1.8680670. PubMed PMID: 8680670

Lombardi E, Stein RT, Wright AL, Morgan WJ, Martinez FD. The relation between physician-diagnosed sinusitis, asthma, and skin test reactivity to allergens in 8-year-old children. Pediatric pulmonology. 1996;22(3):141-6. Epub 1996/09/01. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0496(199609)22:3<141::AID-PPUL1>3.0.CO;2-S. PubMed PMID: 8893251

Miller AL, Stern DA, Martinez FD, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Halonen M. Serum levels of the soluble low affinity receptor for IgE and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in childhood, and their relation to age, gender, atopy and allergic disease. Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 1996;7(2):68-74. Epub 1996/05/01. PubMed PMID: 8902856

Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Taussig LM, Halonen M, Martinez FD. Recurrent cough in childhood and its relation to asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1996;153(4 Pt 1):1259-65. Epub 1996/04/01. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.153.4.8616551. PubMed PMID: 8616551

Halonen M, Stern DA, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Martinez FD. Alternaria as a major allergen for asthma in children raised in a desert environment. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1997;155(4):1356-61. Epub 1997/04/01. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.155.4.9105079. PubMed PMID: 9105079

Lombardi E, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Stein RT, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD. Cold air challenge at age 6 and subsequent incidence of asthma. A longitudinal study. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1997;156(6):1863-9. Epub 1997/12/31. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.156.6.9612066. PubMed PMID: 9412567

Stein RT, Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Lombardi E, Taussig L, et al. Peak flow variability, methacholine responsiveness and atopy as markers for detecting different wheezing phenotypes in childhood. Thorax. 1997;52(11):946-52. Epub 1998/03/06. PubMed PMID: 9487341

Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Differences in familial segregation of FEV1 between asthmatic and nonasthmatic families. Role of a maternal component. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1998;158(1):162-9. Epub 1998/07/09. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.158.1.9706117. PubMed PMID: 9655724

Martinez FD, Stern DA, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Halonen M. Differential immune responses to acute lower respiratory illness in early life and subsequent development of persistent wheezing and asthma. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1998;102(6 Pt 1):915-20. Epub 1998/12/16. PubMed PMID: 9847431

Wright AL, Taussig LM. Lessons from long-term cohort studies. Childhood asthma. The European respiratory journal Supplement. 1998;27:17s-22s. Epub 1998/08/12. PubMed PMID: 9699779

Castro-Rodriguez JA, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Halonen M, Taussig LM, Morgan WJ, et al. Association of radiologically ascertained pneumonia before age 3 yr with asthmalike symptoms and pulmonary function during childhood: a prospective study. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1999;159(6):1891-7. Epub 1999/06/03. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.159.6.9811035. PubMed PMID: 10351936

Halonen M, Stern DA, Lohman C, Wright AL, Brown MA, Martinez FD. Two subphenotypes of childhood asthma that differ in maternal and paternal influences on asthma risk. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1999;160(2):564-70. Epub 1999/08/03. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.160.2.9809038. PubMed PMID: 10430729

Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Familial aggregation and segregation analysis of eosinophil levels. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1999;160(5 Pt 1):1604-10. Epub 1999/11/11. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.160.5.9807043. PubMed PMID: 10556128

Sherrill DL, Stein R, Halonen M, Holberg CJ, Wright A, Martinez FD. Total serum IgE and its association with asthma symptoms and allergic sensitization among children. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1999;104(1):28-36. Epub 1999/07/10. PubMed PMID: 10400836

Stein RT, Holberg CJ, Sherrill D, Wright AL, Morgan WJ, Taussig L, et al. Influence of parental smoking on respiratory symptoms during the first decade of life: the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study. American journal of epidemiology. 1999;149(11):1030-7. Epub 1999/06/04. PubMed PMID: 10355379

Stein RT, Sherrill D, Morgan WJ, Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Taussig LM, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus in early life and risk of wheeze and allergy by age 13 years. Lancet. 1999;354(9178):541-5. Epub 1999/09/02. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)10321-5. PubMed PMID: 10470697

Wright AL, Sherrill D, Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Martinez FD. Breast-feeding, maternal IgE, and total serum IgE in childhood. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1999;104(3 Pt 1):589-94. Epub 1999/09/14. PubMed PMID: 10482832

Ball TM, Castro-Rodriguez JA, Griffith KA, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Wright AL. Siblings, day-care attendance, and the risk of asthma and wheezing during childhood. The New England journal of medicine. 2000;343(8):538-43. Epub 2000/08/24. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200008243430803. PubMed PMID: 10954761

Castro-Rodriguez JA, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD. A clinical index to define risk of asthma in young children with recurrent wheezing. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2000;162(4 Pt 1):1403-6. Epub 2000/10/13. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.162.4.9912111. PubMed PMID: 11029352

Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Taussig LM, Martinez F. Maternal asthma status alters relation of infant feeding to asthma in childhood. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2000;478:131-7. Epub 2000/11/07. PubMed PMID: 11065066

Castro-Rodriguez JA, Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Halonen M, Taussig LM, et al. Relation of two different subtypes of croup before age three to wheezing, atopy, and pulmonary function during childhood: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 2001;107(3):512-8. Epub 2001/03/07. PubMed PMID: 11230591

Castro-Rodriguez JA, Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Increased incidence of asthmalike symptoms in girls who become overweight or obese during the school years. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2001;163(6):1344-9. Epub 2001/05/24. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.163.6.2006140. PubMed PMID: 11371399

Castro-Rodriguez JA, Stern DA, Halonen M, Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Taussig LM, et al. Relation between infantile colic and asthma/atopy: a prospective study in an unselected population. Pediatrics. 2001;108(4):878-82. Epub 2001/10/03. PubMed PMID: 11581439

Remes ST, Castro-Rodriguez JA, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Wright AL. Dog exposure in infancy decreases the subsequent risk of frequent wheeze but not of atopy. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2001;108(4):509-15. Epub 2001/10/09. doi: 10.1067/mai.2001.117797. PubMed PMID: 11590373

Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Taussig LM, Martinez FD. Factors influencing the relation of infant feeding to asthma and recurrent wheeze in childhood. Thorax. 2001;56(3):192-7. Epub 2001/02/22. PubMed PMID: 11182011

Wright AL, Stern DA, Halonen M. The association of allergic sensitization in mother and child in breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2001;501:249-55. Epub 2002/01/15. PubMed PMID: 11787688

Ball TM, Holberg CJ, Aldous MB, Martinez FD, Wright AL. Influence of attendance at day care on the common cold from birth through 13 years of age. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. 2002;156(2):121-6. Epub 2002/02/09. PubMed PMID: 11814371

Ball TM, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Wright AL. Is there a common cold constitution? Ambulatory pediatrics : the official journal of the Ambulatory Pediatric Association. 2002;2(4):261-7. Epub 2002/07/24. PubMed PMID: 12135399

Karakoc F, Remes ST, Martinez FD, Wright AL. The association between persistent eosinophilia and asthma in childhood is independent of atopic status. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2002;32(1):51-6. Epub 2002/05/11. PubMed PMID: 12002737

Taussig LM, Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Morgan WJ, Martinez FD. Tucson Children's Respiratory Study: 1980 to present. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2003;111(4):661-75; quiz 76. Epub 2003/04/22. PubMed PMID: 12704342

Crestani E, Guerra S, Wright AL, Halonen M, Martinez FD. Parental asthma as a risk factor for the development of early skin test sensitization in children. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2004;113(2):284-90. Epub 2004/02/10. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2003.11.009. PubMed PMID: 14767443

Guerra S, Carla Lohman I, LeVan TD, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Halonen M. The differential effect of genetic variation on soluble CD14 levels in human plasma and milk. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2004;52(3):204-11. Epub 2004/09/18. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2004.00207.x. PubMed PMID: 15373760

Guerra S, Wright AL, Morgan WJ, Sherrill DL, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD. Persistence of asthma symptoms during adolescence: role of obesity and age at the onset of puberty. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2004;170(1):78-85. Epub 2004/03/19. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200309-1224OC. PubMed PMID: 15028559

Stern DA, Lohman IC, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Martinez FD, Halonen M. Dynamic changes in sensitization to specific aeroallergens in children raised in a desert environment. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2004;34(10):1563-669. Epub 2004/10/14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.02088.x. PubMed PMID: 15479271

Guerra S, Graves PE, Morgan WJ, Sherrill DL, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, et al. Relation of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms at codons 16 and 27 to persistence of asthma symptoms after the onset of puberty. Chest. 2005;128(2):609-17. Epub 2005/08/16. doi: 10.1378/chest.128.2.609. PubMed PMID: 16100145

Morgan WJ, Stern DA, Sherrill DL, Guerra S, Holberg CJ, Guilbert TW, et al. Outcome of asthma and wheezing in the first 6 years of life: follow-up through adolescence. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2005;172(10):1253-8. Epub 2005/08/20. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200504-525OC. PubMed PMID: 16109980

Sherrill DL, Guerra S, Minervini MC, Wright AL, Martinez FD. The relation of rhinitis to recurrent cough and wheezing: a longitudinal study. Respiratory medicine. 2005;99(11):1377-85. Epub 2005/05/18. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2005.03.025. PubMed PMID: 15896950

Wright AL, Stern DA, Kauffmann F, Martinez FD. Factors influencing gender differences in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in childhood: the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study. Pediatric pulmonology. 2006;41(4):318-25. Epub 2006/02/16. doi: 10.1002/ppul.20373. PubMed PMID: 16477658

Guilbert TW, Stern DA, Morgan WJ, Martinez FD, Wright AL. Effect of breastfeeding on lung function in childhood and modulation by maternal asthma and atopy. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2007;176(9):843-8. Epub 2007/08/11. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200610-1507OC. PubMed PMID: 17690333

Stern DA, Guerra S, Halonen M, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Low IFN-gamma production in the first year of life as a predictor of wheeze during childhood. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2007;120(4):835-41. Epub 2007/08/11. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2007.05.050. PubMed PMID: 17689598

Stern DA, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Guerra S, Martinez FD. Poor airway function in early infancy and lung function by age 22 years: a non-selective longitudinal cohort study. Lancet. 2007;370(9589):758-64. Epub 2007/09/04. doi: S0140-6736(07)61379-8 [pii] 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61379-8. PubMed PMID: 17765525

Stern DA, Morgan WJ, Halonen M, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Wheezing and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in early childhood as predictors of newly diagnosed asthma in early adulthood: a longitudinal birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2008;372(9643):1058-64. Epub 2008/09/23. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61447-6. PubMed PMID: 18805334

Tebow G, Sherrill DL, Lohman IC, Stern DA, Wright AL, Martinez FD, et al. Effects of parental smoking on interferon gamma production in children. Pediatrics. 2008;121(6):e1563-9. Epub 2008/06/04. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2795. PubMed PMID: 18519461

Custovic A, Rothers J, Stern D, Simpson A, Woodcock A, Wright AL, et al. Effect of day care attendance on sensitization and atopic wheezing differs by Toll-like receptor 2 genotype in 2 population-based birth cohort studies. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2011;127(2):390-7 e1-9. Epub 2011/02/02. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2010.10.050. PubMed PMID: 21281869

Sherrill DL, Guerra S, Wright AL, Morgan WJ, Martinez FD. Relation of early childhood growth and wheezing phenotypes to adult lung function. Pediatric pulmonology. 2011;46(10):956-63. Epub 2011/04/27. doi: 10.1002/ppul.21470. PubMed PMID: 21520441

Guerra S, Stern DA, Zhou M, Sherrill DL, Wright AL, Morgan WJ, et al. Combined effects of parental and active smoking on early lung function deficits: a prospective study from birth to age 26 years. Thorax. 2013;68(11):1021-8. Epub 2013/07/13. doi: thoraxjnl-2013-203538 [pii] 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-203538. PubMed PMID: 23847259

Marri PR, Stern DA, Wright AL, Billheimer D, Martinez FD. Asthma-associated differences in microbial composition of induced sputum. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2013;131(2):346-52 e1-3. Epub 2012/12/26. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.11.013. PubMed PMID: 23265859

Voraphani N, Stern DA, Wright AL, Guerra S, Morgan WJ, Martinez FD. Risk of current asthma among adult smokers with respiratory syncytial virus illnesses in early life. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2014;190(4):392-8. Epub 2014/06/14. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201311-2095OC. PubMed PMID: 24927374

Beamer PI, Lothrop N, Lu Z, Ascher R, Ernst K, Stern DA, et al. Spatial clusters of child lower respiratory illnesses associated with community-level risk factors. Pediatric pulmonology. 2015. Epub 2015/10/06. doi: 10.1002/ppul.23332. PubMed PMID: 26436763

Beamer PI, Lothrop N, Stern DA, Billheimer D, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Increased wheezing risk with diesel exposure among children of younger mothers. The European respiratory journal. 2015;46(3):853-5. Epub 2015/04/18. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00227214. PubMed PMID: 25882808

Chan JY, Stern DA, Guerra S, Wright AL, Morgan WJ, Martinez FD. Pneumonia in childhood and impaired lung function in adults: a longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 2015;135(4):607-16. Epub 2015/03/04. doi: peds.2014-3060 [pii] 10.1542/peds.2014-3060. PubMed PMID: 25733757

Guerra S, Halonen M, Vasquez MM, Spangenberg A, Stern DA, Morgan WJ, et al. Relation between circulating CC16 concentrations, lung function, and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease across the lifespan: a prospective study. The Lancet Respiratory medicine. 2015;3(8):613-20. Epub 2015/07/15. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00196-4. PubMed PMID: 26159408